Parasites: parasites have been of low frequency and are usually not associated with clinical signs in captive rhinos. In newly captured rhinos, consideration should be given to hemic and skin parasites as well as fecal ones. A biannual fecal examination for parasites is adequate in rhinos established in captivity. In newly arrived rhinos blood examinations should be performed for hemic parasites (e.g. Babesia sp., trypanosomes, theileriasis and leishmaniasis). Skin lesions in wild caught Black rhinos should be biopsied and examined for the presence of Stephanofilaria dinniki. The most commonly found endoparasites have been tapeworms. In rhinos established in other captive collections other endo- and ectoparasites have been unusual. If fecals contain parasites treatment should be based on accepted horse parasiticides that possess a wide safety margin. If hemic parasites are found, treatment should be based on those employed previously. Treatment of ectoparasites in newly arrived rhinos has consisted of the application of coumaphos.

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